All the living being in this universe is made up of five elements, which are Agni (Fire), Jal (Water), Vayu (Air), Gagan (Sky), and Prithvi (Earth). These five elements altogether form an environment. Whenever any unwanted foreign particle gets mixed with any of these purities, it produces harmful effects on life. These contaminants in natural biosphere including Earth are known as pollutants and causes pollution. The natural system in which human beings and animals live is an ecosystem, that is denoted in a particular cycle. Example: Man-Animals-Vegetation in the presence of air, sun, water, and Earth. These pollutants effects the earth structure, global warming, change in weather, increase in diseases, sometimes harmful in genetic structure. It has been seen due to the pollution approximately 20 crore people get affected every year in the world. The effect of pollution is also seen in the animal kingdom as well as in the plant kingdom. Therefore, so many species of animals, birds, plants are extinct now.
The disturbance in the ecosystem is mainly due to manmade courses. Example:
1. Industrialization and industrial activities.
2. Disposal of solid waste.
3. Increased number of vehicles.
4. Urbanization and increase in human population.
5. Excess usage of fossil fuel.
6. Change in agricultural activities example use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers.
7. Deforestation and mining work.
8. Excess use of underground water.
9. Use of nuclear weapons and fire products.
For better living and mechanization we human beings are disturbing our own ecosystem. It is well known that development leads to destruction.
Various types of pollution are:
Thermal heat pollution
Due to industrialization harmful gases emit out, the smoke, swirling gases, industrial effluents etcetera are hazardous for health. The improper disposal of residue in the soil and rivers etc. causes soil and water pollution. The chimneys of heavy industries emit smoke which mainly has sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide etc that causes air pollution.
Post industrialization, the roads, building, malls, rail network and many other infrastructures were in the demand. For fulfilling the requirement, land is been used, this land either was procured from agricultural land or forest land. This evolution has a severe effect on the environment where we live in. For the development and selfish usage, we human beings have disturbed the whole ecosystem.
With industrialisation the demand for vehicles have also increased, which has resulted in polluting the air as they have their own share for emitting the hazardous gases, for instance, carbon monoxide. It has been observed that the greenhouse gases from all sources perhaps are going to double by the year 2035. The carbon dioxide constitutes about 49% of total greenhouse gases. Methane gas which has a significant amount in air pollution is also a reason for ozone layer depletion. Methane is 58 times more potent than carbon dioxide. These gases also cause global warming. Depletion of the ozone layer by 1% can increase the chances of skin cancer by 4 to 6%. The methane gas also comes from the paddy fields. Wherever the nitrogen releases from fuels, fertilizer and deforestation, a gas chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulphur hexafluoride releases from aerosol, refrigerants. These all gases are hazardous to life and effects the livestock as well.
During the construction of societies, buildings, schools the sand and dust particles mix in the environment and becomes a part of the air. Burning of stubble in the rural areas is the main cause behind the Smog. The harmful gases released from insecticides are disposed into the waterbodies causing air pollution as well as water pollution. In the rainy season the droplets of clouds are present in the environment and in cold season along with fog, nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide combines with water particle and forms acidic pollutant. These droplets harm the skin of animals and causes skin diseases.
Due to the presence of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons depletion of ozone layers takes place.The ultraviolet rays falling directly on the body causes skin disease. The other greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere can cause respiratory problems to the animals and can also cause asthma and bronchitis. It damages lung tissues. In some cases when paddy straws are taken by livestock the presence of dust and fungal spores cause pleuropneumonia. Due to dust, carbon particles, sandstone dust near a crusher the animals can be affected with anthracosis. The waterbodies surrounded by the industries becomes toxic because of the industrial waste. This affects the animals' metabolism, leads to irregular reproduction, low milk yield and sometimes animals may die as well.This is under biocidal process.
Water pollution occurs due to the use of pesticides, insecticides and even chemical fertilizers in the agricultural farm and garden. The detergents and washing powder also causes the water pollution by the composition of complex phosphates, which has a hazardous effect. Nitrate and phosphate fertilizer mixed with water causes damage in the vascular respiratory system causing suffocation.
The water pollution due to inorganic pollutants example arsenic, nickel, zinc and copper are detrimental to fishes and aquatic animals. Due to pollutant benzene which causes skin irritation, conjunctivitis, dizziness and sometimes leukaemia and aplastic anaemia. The furniture factory is using formaldehyde, the exposure to pollution causes liver and kidney damage. At coastal side, the sand and water are polluted by oil spills, polythene and plastic landfills, worms of food and dead animals can kill the fishes and aquatic animals. Heating up of an aquatic ecosystem is thermal pollution. The water pollution causes skin diseases, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cancer, low reproduction in animals etc. Soil pollution is incorporated by unwanted chemicals, insecticide pesticides, nitrogen and phosphate compound, unfit waste of industries, mining which exploits soil. This pollution leads to soil erosion. Sometimes when nuclear waste is disposed carelessly it causes radioactive pollution which causes birth defects and blindness in animals. In case of noise pollution, when higher intensity i.e. more than 85 DB reaches it can cause the acoustic problem with high blood pressure.
However, pollution of any type causes health problems to human beings along with animals. To avoid pollution provide the animals pollutant free meals and water. In their shelter house, fresh air is advised and not to keep them at dampness. Avoid going nearby any factory area, landfill places and the farm where insecticide and pesticides are used.